The concept qaallummaa is derived from the Waaqeffannaa spiritual society concept of Qaalluu. The term Qaalluu literally refers to ’a person who can knows the sacred wisdom of Waaqaa and Waaqeffannaa’. It also means a waaqeffannaa sacred spiritual person and sacred ritual head who achieved the highest level of awakened spiritual consciousness. Due to this quality of qaalluu, the term qaalluu represent a mentor in spiritual matters and thus it stand for a person who is renowned for his/her profound spiritual wisdom. And thus the term Qaalluu stand for the Waaqeffannaa institution authoritative person who renowned for his/her profound spiritual wisdom. Therefore Qaalluu mean a sacred person 1) who passed through the six stages of spiritual awakening and achieved the highest level of Waaqeffannaa or Daaniyaa spiritual institution’s teaching and received the title Yuubaa and anointed to guide the Waaqeffannaa spiritual society and institution on a sacred spiritual matter, and 2) a divinely descended spiritual person who is recognized for his spiritual Grace and his awakened consciousness. And so Qqaalluu stand for spiritually awakened person of the Waaqeffannaa spiritual society. The Waaqeffannaa spiritual society concept of a spiritual awakening, qaallummaa, refers to the process by which we begin to explore our own being in order to become the whole and reunite our ayyaanaa (, or spirit) with our physical bodies in a commonality of sacred purpose. It is the consciousness of spiritual matters including connection to one’s own soul, getting in touch with the divine being and awareness of the spiritual realm. And so qaallummaa is achieved when one has become aware and has awakened and when one went through stages of an awakening. It can be very life changing for a person especially if the person has not been activated and in silent mode of spirituality to begin with.
An awakening can strip a person of previous beliefs, feelings and life views causing them to see the world and themselves in a whole new light. It clears a blurred daze and fog life we are living, it removes this daze and fog, and shows one that one is not just existing but one is living and with a purpose and reason. The aim of spiritual awareness is awakening and transcending the self, and the mind. Thus spiritual awareness brings knowing, a feeling of oneness with all there is. One of the purpose of spiritual awakening is getting you to see yourself-worth and show you that you do have a reason to be here and that even the little things you do for yourself and for others can have the biggest impacts and can make a positive difference to you and for others around you. The spiritual awakening process sparks the activation of awareness and once someone have completed their spiritual awakening and go and look back on their life before the awakening began, they may see how much they were just existing in robotic mode. And thus a spiritual awakening brings one out of this robotic mode and into awareness mode which wakes them up and they start to exist with a new and positive lease of life.
In the Waaqeffannaa spiritual society concept of spiritual awakening path, as they move up along the spiritual ladder individuals will become more aware of themselves on a much deeper and higher level and what is real. The person going through the awakening stages will develop a step by step awareness of what is going around them and of themselves and they will be more aware of their life experiences and the lessons they have learnt from these experiences and the reasons why. They will start to accept who they are and let go of any negative energy such as hurt, anger, and negative feelings that they had towards their life and people and they will gradually go through a healing process of their heart, soul and mind. And thus they will start to feel more at one with themselves and everything around them and they may feel more contented, and at peace with their surroundings, themselves, and with other people. And they will suddenly start seeing the world in a different way and their previous views and opinions may change drastically.
Thus the term qaalluummaa stand for the quality of being qaalluu, that is, the quality of being the things that makes someone renowned for his/her profound spiritual wisdom. Therefore, in addition to divine Grace, the Waaqeffannaa spiritual society also through their sacred institution developed a well-structured spiritual path, a journey to the highest level of awakened spiritual consciousness, on which they intended to walk to achieve the sacred spiritual Wisdom– achieving the highest level of awakened spiritual consciousness. Once individuals achieved the highest level of awakened spiritual consciousness and become Qaalluu, they are already in use of their third eye and are considered as having black tongue (Arraba gurraachomu). Therefore, the qaalluus are bestowed with the use of their third eye, the qallacha qaalluu, and use the black side of their tongue. The term tongue (, or arrabaa) symbolically represent speech or words as the Waaqeffannaa allot the principal parts of speech to tongue. The symbolic blackness of the tongue of the qaalluu represent the power of qaalluu to bless and to curse, that once the qaalluu bless or curse, it attached to the recipient of the curse or blessing verses. Thus the qaalluu’s power to bless and to curse are considered as having a dark tongue. The dark is the holy as symbolic representation of Waaqaa and as Waaqaa puffs his blessing through rain and kills with lightning and thunder, the qaalluu’s tongue, too, blesses and curses. When the qaalluu puff His spittle (saliva), it represent his blessing and so has his tongue. His tongue can both bless and kills; it is Holy Black (Gurraacha).
Karaa qaallummaa- the Spiritual Path
In general in waaqeffanna qaallumma can be attained in quaternary of ways. These are 1) divine origin (Qaalluu Uumaa), 2) divine blessing (Qaalluu Birbirsa Dhaabessaa), 3) Devotional service of Warra Qaalluu (Qaalluu Jilaa), and 4) Spiritual awakening (Qaalluu Hayyicha)
1. Qaallummaa through Divine Grace- Qaalluu Uumaa
The term qaalluu uumaa is derived from two Oromo words: qaalluu and uumaa. The term qaalluu, as it is described above, represent a person who Waaqaa enlighten with His sacred wisdom while the term uumaa, in this context, literally refers to the term “divine”, “godly”, “heavenly”, “providential”, or “sacred”. It represent that which emanated from God. The two terms, qaalluu and uumaa, together stand for the divinely created qaalluu. It represent a divinely created person whom Waaqaa send down to the Bishaan Godaa through His divine Grace. Therefore, this qaalluu is a person resulted from divine providence through the Grace of the Supreme Being. This implies the status of Qaalluu Uumaa is attained through divine Grace of Waaqaa Gurraacha-Tokkicha-Haqaa and this source of qaallummaa is divine in origin. This qaalluu is a Waaqaa sent qaalluu and thus they are divine in origin. They are descended from the Bishaan Gubbaa (Water Above). They are brought forth by Waaqaa in the sacred realm of Righteousness in the Water Above and send down to descend to the Bishaan Godaa (Water Below). Thus this qaalluu has not begotten from human beings, rather brought forth by the Supreme Being Waaqaa.
According to the Waaqeffannaa account Dhiibuu Rabbii is one among the notable qaalluu uumaa descended down from High. Dhiibuu Rabbii is one of the Qaalluu Uumaa believed to be descended from Bishaan Gubbaa. This sacred child was found in a Dhiibuu (, or an enclosure) by herdsmen. The term dhiibuu is a name given to this child as this sacred child was found in a dhiibuu, a watery ground (galanaa, bishaan) enclosed with woods (Muka rukkaa, Bosonaa). His father’s name became Rabbii implying that the child is descended from the water above and thus considered as fathered by Rabbii, the divinely given child of the Water Above, as the Waaqeffannaa also use the term Rabbii in a reference to Creator Waaqaa. When the herdsmen found Dhiibuu, he was a small child about four or five years old. The child was found with his sacred emblem including Faajjii Diimaa (Red emblem) and Dibbee (Drum). He then brought to the home of a person named Boosat by the herdsmen and brought up in the home of Boosat. Since his childhood age the child used to perform mystery and miracles and recognized by people of the land. He endowed with the power to make rain (Waaqaa Roobsuu) and cease or stops rains (Waaqaa Caamsuu) through his prayers. He did not use violence against human beings; He did not utter bad words against human beings and other beings; He never called upon Waaqaa to destroy anyone; He didn’t seek fame; He did not gossip, neither quarreled with others; but He showed respect to elders and to everyone including those younger than him. Throughout his life He was engaged in mediating and reconciling human with Waaqaa. He never cut a tree and slayed any life. He marry his only wife and begot his only son. He live at peace with everybody and everything. As the result people of the land loved, adored and followed Him to the day of His death and even beyond.
Upon his death the sacred person uttered his final word about his mourning and on how his funeral ritual rite shall it be. Thus a moment before his death he recite his final words and it was to cover his corpse with hide of lamb and put inside the cattle enclosure. He said, “Boollaa keessatti na hin awwaaliinaa (Do not conceal me under the ground (bury)), garuu erbeen na maraa moonaa loonii keessa na kaahaa (Rather conceal (cover) me with lamb hide and place me inside the cattle enclosure)”. Keeping the promise as he uttered upon his death, they covered his corpse with lamb hide (erbee, gogaa) and placed him in the center of the enclosure. Immediately before they depart the cloud mist covered the earth and took the corpse of the sacred person leaving the hide inside the cattle enclosure.
Upon his death, Dhiibuu’s first and only son, Boosat Dhiibuu, assumed and took over the cathedral of his father and anointed as Qaalluu Uumaa. The heir of the cathedra, the first and only son of the divinely descended first Qaalluu, followed his father’s footstep and lived to the expectation of the sacred covenant. But his grandson, Lumee Boosat Dhiibuu, fail to fulfill the expectation and the promise of his father and grandfather after inheriting the cathedral of his ancestors. He deceived Waaqaa as he violates the sacred covenant of safuu and laguu. He twisted the sacred covenant of safuu and laguu and slew life and make unworthy sexual affairs out of wedlock. To make his wish successful, first he wanted to take part through his agent as it is not allowable for the qaalluu to slay life, but the agent deny him to give him the “mirgaa” (the patent or the right to kill large animal). And the agent denied to pass and gives the Mirgaa to Lumee (mirga dabarsee hinkennu jedhe). Then Lumee, the deceiver, annoyed with the betrayal of his agent and say “I can do it by myself, I can kill too”. He then went to the forest and slew one the large animal and return home with mirgaa (patent, right). With this he won the heart of a women he want and marry her as a second wife. He also fathered a son from his junior wife. Unfortunately after the birth of his son from his junior wife, the first and the supposed to be his ‘only’ son from his legitimate wife (niitii rakoo or hangafaa), the royal and loyal heir of the cathedral, passed away. Thus He lost his first and ‘only’ son, the legitimate heir of the cathedra who supposed to heir or inherit his ancestor’s sacred Wisdom.
Time up and Lumee passed away. When Lumee, the deceiver, was died too, like his father and grandfather, his family covered his corpse with hide and placed in the center of the cattle enclosure. As usual the cloud mist covered the earth and when the cloud mist cleared, they found that the corpse of Lumee laid in the enclosure without covering and being bared. Thus due to the twisting, breaching and breaking of the sacred covenant of safeefannaa and lagannaa he committed, Lumee Boosat Dhiibuu left naked in the middle of the cattle enclosure. Thus he was punished with divine uncovering. Due to lack of divine Grace, Lumee Boosat was buried in the center of [cattle] enclosure where the divine being left his corpse being uncovered. From then onwards his cemetery is known as Hujufaa (Awwaala) Lumee Boosat and is considered as the ritual place of prayer for rain making. On the ritual of rain making, the community around the graveyard of Lumee gather together at the graveyard to hold prayer of araaraa carrying the sacred stuff of his father (Ulfaa uumaa Abbaasaa) particularly when the land sustain longstanding drought. Thus Lumee’s burial cemetery remain the center of prayer during the period of calamity.
Among the Waaqeffannaa when the sacred covenant is twisted, they usually hold the falannaa ritual to rectify or purge the negative energy that are lurking in the compound. In the process of restoring the proper heir of the cathedral of qaallummaa, they have to hold the ritual of falannaa (tolfannaa). This is due to according to the Waaqeffannaa, a baby born out of wedlock belongs to the family who slew the rakoo (warra rakoo qaleeti), technically the person who took her virginity. Therefore to rectify this twisted covenant and legitimize the illegitimate son to heir the cathedral of his ancestors, the elder wife has to adopt the illegitimate boy who begotten from illegitimate wife to inherit his father’s cathedra. With this ritual of adoption, guddifacha, the illegitimate child become the legitimate one and installed as the royal heir of the cathedral of his forefathers.
The descendant of this divinely born qaalluu are Nabii Roobaa Qumbii Roobaa Tufaa Lafaa Lumee Booset Dhiibuu Rabbii. Nabii is the living descendant of Dhiibuu Rabbii (2013).
2. Qaallummaa through Divine blessing- Qaalluu Birbirsaa Dhaabeessa
Another way of attaining qaallummaa is through the blessing of the Most High, the Supreme Being. The Supreme Being send the sacred ritual stuffs and emblem of qaallummaa as symbol of His divine blessing and anoints a person to become Qaalluu. This way of attaining qaallummaa and the becoming of qaalluu birbirsa dhaabeessaa is through divine blessing by sending down the sacred ritual stuffs of qaalluu to selected men through which Waaqaa wanted to accomplish what is with Him. In this case Waaqaa gives qaalluumma through the sacred ritual stuffs. Thus qaallummaa can be attained through sending the sacred ritual stuffs of qaalluu as a symbol of His divine blessing. These sacred ritual stuffs of qaalluus includes Qaallacha Qaalluu (Kallachaa), Dibble (Drum), Faajjii (Emblem) and are considered as descended from ‘Above’ into the enclosure of selected son of men. They are considered as sacred ritual stuffs among the waaqeffannaa and they bestow the status of Qaalluu and anoint them with the grace of Qaallummaa. These sacred stuffs are being sent from above through thunder and lightning.
3. Qaallummaa through Devotional service of warraa qaalluu- Qaalluu Jila
The status of qaalluu jilaa is attained through zealous serving of the qaalluu uumaa through carrying the sacred ritual stuffs of the Warra Qaalluu (ulfaa gosa tokkoo hangafummaan baachuun mirga qaallummaa argachuun). The elder son of lineage is sent to serve the Warra Qaalluu as those who carry the sacred ritual stuffs of qaalluu can attain the status of qaallummaa. This is through learning the sacred wisdom of warra qaalluu and Waaqaa through extensive exposure. They are anointed to serve the cathedral of the lineage or clan and remain the qaalluu of that particular lineage. They are identified by their symbol known as Goodaa.
4. Qaallummaa through Spiritual awakening- Qaalluu Hayyichaa
The waaqeffannaa spiritual society does talk “Obsan Qaallomanii” which literally refers to ‘through patience one earns Qaallummaa (spiritual awakening)’, that is, one may get enlightenment through experience and devotion. One needs to make the zealous effort in learning spiritual thing and to become spiritually enlightened. That is to grow spiritually, one need to walk through the peril of spiritual awakening path. Spiritual awakening path is the path that leads one towards the 7th stage, the stage of righteousness, the stage of qaallummaa. It is walking towards the center, the bahaa- the inner world which represents the essence of self and self being. And so spiritual awakening is searching or walking to (re) discover true self, the righteous self, the Raayyummaa, and thus walking towards sacredness. And therefore, the Waaqeffannaa spiritual society journey of spiritual awakening comes about thru daily practices of inward focus, awareness, openness, and a willingness to raise one’s frequency above its usual level. The path the Waaqeffannaa spiritual society use to reach the highest level of awakened spiritual consciousness and become the whole are Dalagaa (the sacred meditation), Jeekersaa (the sacred hymns, music, and dance), Jaatanii (sacred praise, blessing, and prayer), Mo’ataa (sacred trance) and spiritual studies.
When a person begins to walk through the spiritual awakening path they will go through different stages of awakening before they get into the last stage which will herald the completion of the spiritual awakening process and get anoint as sacred. Among the waaqeffannaa spiritual society to achieve the highest level of awakened spiritual consciousness, they need to walk up along a six step ladder of Waaqeffannaa spirituality. These six stage ladder are Raabaa, Doorii (Daroo, Barsoo), Biloo, Laboo, Luboo and Yuubaa from the lowest level to highest level of spiritual consciousness. By completion of these six stages, they anointed and become the sacred oracle of the waaqeffannaa spiritual society and Waaqa Gurraacha- Tokkichaa-Haqaa, the qaalluu-qaallittii. And thus awakening is a journey from limitation to freedom, from unconsciousness to consciousness, from ignorance to enlightenment, from chaos to peace and harmony. When one understand each stage, and where one is on the journey, the person can recognize the sign posts along the way, and the possible pitfalls to avoid.
A person at the stage of Raabaa has no or limited spiritual awareness. Thus this person is at an initial stage of spiritual initiation (awakening) whereas a person at the stage of Yuubaa, achieves a full awakening, and he is at the stage of the highest level of spiritual consciousness. And so the end result of full awakening is freedom from personal suffering, clarity of mind, boundless joy, inner peace, and the ability to live an incredible fulfilling life. At completion of each stage, they go into a new and positive lease of life. Therefore, the awakened state holds everything we have ever desired, and so much more. Among the antique Waaqeffannaa spiritual society every first born son of the waaqeffannaa initiated and enters into this spiritual awakening process beginning from the day of their birth. They are anointed after they completed their spiritual awakening course journeying through the 7 step ladder up. Thus qaalluu is among the first born from each lineage.
At birth they enters into the initial stage of the seven step ladder of spiritual awakening process. They then walk throughout their life journey in which they initiated every eight years into new ladder. Throughout the awakening journey they experience the Grace of Waaqaa. Thus the individuals who walks through the seven steps ladder attains qaallummaa when they completed the 7 step ladder spiritual journey. After the Yuubaas completed the 8 years spiritual service, they are anointed as Qaalluu. They initiated into the Qaalluu after completing the Yuubaa stage spiritual awakening sessions and anointed by either of the divinely born Qaalluu, the Qaalluu Uumaa or Qaalluu Birbirsaa Dhaabessaa. Therefore in such a way the hayyuu attain the status of Qaalluu through the sacred spiritual journey.
The Waaqeffannaa spiritual society and its institution anoint the Qaalluus in which the highest officiant of the Qaalluu institution, Qaalluu Sabaa (, or the Qaaduree), is anointed from Qaalluu Uumaa where the Qaalluu Gosaa, the second ranking officiant of the Waaqeffanna are anointed from the Yuubaa, as well as from Qaalluu Birbirsaa Dhaabessaa and Qaalluu Jilaa. Once the qaalluu has anointed as qaaduree, remain as qaaduree until the day of his death as the office of qaalluu institution is hereditary unless he breaches the safuu and laguu sacred covenant.
The term qaaduree refers to the highest ranking official of the Waaqeffannaa institution, the Abbaa Muudaa. The qaaduree, the supreme qaalluu, is the most sacred ritual figure in the office of the sacred qaalluu institution. He is the Supreme Qaalluu, the Holy of holies, a patriarchal and pontifical figure of the daaniyaa spiritual society. He is the father and source of righteousness, wisdom, harmony and peace. The waaqeffannaa spiritual society does anoint their qaaduree, the highest officiant of the Waaqeffannaa institution, from the qaalluu-qaallittii, the highest sacred ayyaantuu (oracle) of the waaqeffannaa spiritual society. The concept qaaduree is derived from two Oromo terms qaalluu and duree. The term qaalluu stand for the sacred high official of the waaqeffannaa spiritual society where duree refers to ’front’, ’prominent’, ’figurehead’, ’first’, ’fore’ or ’foremost’, ‘crown’, ‘officialdom’. And thus the two words together form the concept qaalluuduree (qaaduree) and refer to the ‘fore qaalluu’, or the ‘foremost qaalluu’. Therefore, qaaduree literally refers to the highest officiant of the waaqeffannaa institution. And as well the qaalluu-qaallitti is anointed from the Yuubaa, the most sacred men and women of the waaqefannaa spiritual society. The Yuubaa are the highest sacred person who achieved the highest possible level of spiritual enlightenment, through training of the waaqeffannaa sacred spiritual Wisdom.
The sacred Qaadurree is anointed to assume the sacred office of the waaqeffannaa spiritual institution for a saddeetaa (8 years). To do so they hold the sacred congregational meeting, the Yaa’ii Gumii Waaqeffannaa, every saddeetaa (eight years) where the Raabaa, Doorii, Biloo, Laboo, Luboo and Yuubaa, and Qaalluu-Qaallittii participates to anoint this highest officiant of the waaqeffannaa institution. The meeting of this sacred congregation shall be called by the Session. And thus this Yaa’ii Gumii Waaqeffannaa (, or Waaqeffannaa congregational meeting) shall be held at least once every saddeetaa (, or every eight years) to consider the affairs of the congregation and anoint the sacred qaaduree. Once the qaaduree is anointed, the successive muudaa or anointment of the qaaduree during the sacred saddeetaa congregational meeting is symbolic as the office of the qaaduree is lifelong. And in the middle of this eight year Kontaa congregational meeting (, or Yaa’ii Gumii Kontaa) shall be held at least every four years to consider the affairs of the congregation and to assess the last four years achievement and devise ways to rectify the twisted wisdom and promote the righteous wisdom. Other meeting shall be called when the sessions deems it to be for the best interests of the congregation.
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