“One of the difficulties of studying indigenous religions is the lack of written scriptures to fully understand the beliefs, rituals, liturgies and institutions. In the absence of written scriptures on indigenous religions in African continent, Western scholars approached the study of African religious from their own analytical categories of religion. Seeing only little similarity between their own world views and those of their subjects of study, they presented African indigenous religions as pagan and superstitious, often describing them as inferior, static and things of the past.

In a rebuttal, however, African scholars of religion have posited that religious texts in Africa are “written not on paper but in people‟s hearts, minds, oral history, rituals and religious personages like the priests, rainmakers, officiating elders and even kings. Everybody is a religious carrier.”

On the basis of these sources, scholars have shown that African religions are dynamic, ever-changing and ever-adapting to social changes even after some converted to other faiths.

Even though the literature on indigenous Oromo religion, otherwise known as Waaqeffannaa, is scanty, there is a consensus among academic researchers and local popular writers that Waaqeffannaa is one of the ancient indigenous African monotheistic religions.

Some prominent Oromo scholars and expatriate researchers have carried out research on this religion at different period of time. European missionaries, anthropologists have created a view of Oromo religion that is complex, elaborate and fascinating.12 Recently, some Oromo religious leaders and local scholars have produced studies on Waaqeffannaa often with the general reader in mind.”

(Bedassa Gebissa Aga, Lecturer of Human Rights at Civics and Ethical Studies Program, Department of Governance, College of Social Science, of Wollega University, Ethiopia)